Aquifer System

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Waterloo Moraine


Waterloo Moraine aquifer system
The geology of the Moraine is a quaternary kame and kettle complex. The glacial overburden consists of clay, interbedded tills, fine sand, sandy gravel, and coarse gravel. The stratigraphy is complex, but three relatively continuous till units have been identified throughout the Moraine. Glaciofluvial sand and gravel deposits located between the major till units form the major aquifers in the system. The upper aquifer is extensive and regionally continuous unit. The two lower aquifers are found as pockets of discontinuous sand and gravel. The underlying bedrock consists of dolomitic limestone in the western part of the area and limestone in the eastern part of the region. The bedrock has been observed to be fractured in the top few meters and is also thought to act as a relatively continuous aquifer which provides a hydraulic connection between discrete pockets of the lower confined aquifer. The recharge to the Moraine system is believed to enter mainly through sand hills along the core area of the Moraine. Water percolates in the till on the flanks of the moraine by high conductivities windows. Percolating water is believed to recharge lower aquifers by way of windows in the aquitards, fractures within the till fabric, or both. Groundwater flow is generally from northwest to southeast along the core of the Moraine, and toward the Nith and Grand Rivers. Local rivers and streams are hydrologically connected to the Waterloo moraine. The groundwater is abundant and characterized by high quality water. Groundwater is threatened by the potential rapid growth of the population and cities.
Source Project Datasets More info
Waterloo MoraineWaterloo moraine hydrogeological unitsVector Dataset
Project Publication More info
Waterloo MoraineParis and Galt Moraines, southern Ontario: depositional elements, paleoglacial implications, and hydrogeological applications
Waterloo MoraineParis and Galt Moraines, southern Ontario: depositional elements, paleoglacial implications, and hydrogeological applications
Waterloo MoraineSedimentary signatures of the Waterloo Moraine: Ontario, Canada
Waterloo MoraineGroudnwater contamination in the Kitchener-Waterllo area, Ontario
Waterloo MoraineThree-Dimensional Mapping of Quaternary Deposits in the Waterloo Region, Southwestern Ontario
Waterloo MoraineMethodologies for capture zone delineation for the Waterloo Moraine well fields
Waterloo MoraineTowards a Management Plan for the Waterloo Moraine: A Comprehensive Assessment of its Current State within the Region of Waterloo
Waterloo MoraineAn ecosystem approach to planning for groundwater: The case of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada
Waterloo MoraineAssessing groundwater recharge with two unsaturated zone modeling technologies
Waterloo MoraineA three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic model of the Waterloo Moraine area, southern Ontario, Canada
Waterloo MoraineDelineation of Three-Dimensional Well Capture Zones for Complex Multi-Aquifer Systems
Waterloo MoraineToward an understanding of the Waterloo Moraine hydrogeology
Waterloo MoraineNumerical investigation of road salt impact on an urban wellfield
Waterloo MoraineOn the implications of various approaches to groundwater source protection
Waterloo MoraineThreats to groundwater resources in urbanizing watersheds: The Waterloo Moraine and beyond
Waterloo MoraineInsights gained from geochemical studies in the Waterloo Moraine: Indications and implications for anthropogenic loading
An ecosystem approach to planning for groundwater: The case of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada
Modeling a Complex Multi-Aquifer System: The Waterloo Moraine
Waterloo MoraineGroudnwater contamination in the Kitchener-Waterllo area, Ontario
Waterloo MoraineThree-Dimensional Mapping of Quaternary Deposits in the Waterloo Region, Southwestern Ontario
Waterloo MoraineMethodologies for capture zone delineation for the Waterloo Moraine well fields
Waterloo MoraineAssessing groundwater recharge with two unsaturated zone modeling technologies